The 25-year-old had a hand in both goals as the Lions defeated South Africa 2-0 to clinch their place at the World Cup finals in Russia next summer.
However, he has now headed back to England to undergo treatment on the problem, meaning he will miss the return clash with the Bafana Bafana on Tuesday.
A statement from the Senegal Football Federation confirmed: “Following the match, South Africa against Senegal Friday, November 10th 2017 in Polokwane, the player slightly felt his old injury.
“After consultations between the medical staff of the national team of Senegal and Liverpool it was decided by mutual agreement to make him available to his club to continue treatment until full recovery.”
Mane has only just returned to action after nearly a month on the sidelines due to his hamstring problems, marking his Reds return by helping them rout West Ham 4-1 just over a week ago.
Meanwhile, Philippe Coutinho is looking forward to featuring for Brazil against England at Wembley on Tuesday evening, having also been absent for the Reds in recent weeks due to a hip injury.
The playmaker, who has been absent since the 4-1 thrashing by Spurs in late October, said: “Unfortunately, I could not play for Liverpool in the past three games because of injury.
“Now I feel 100 per cent fit, I have recovered and I am in a good shape to be available for the game against England.”